For example, an entity owning 10 coins when the amount of supply is 100 coins would have a 10/100 = 10% participation score.
Exchanges and miners are excluded.
As set by the constraint in the point 2, one entity can never have an accumulation ratio which exceed its participation score, no matter how much it accumulates, because the maximum and minimum relative balance change are limited. This prevents low players with high balance changes to affect the computation of the metric.
In certain cases, if a really big part of the network greatly accumulates, it is enough to trigger a high accumulation ratio, given that their combined participation score may be huge.